'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Tue, 19 Sep 2017 02:43:31 PDT Tue, 19 Sep 2017 02:43:31 PDT jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com NLRPs, the subcortical maternal complex and genomic imprinting. Monk D, Sanchez-Delgado M, Fisher R
Reproduction (Sep 2017)

Before activation of the embryonic genome, the oocyte provides many of the RNAs and proteins required for the epigenetic reprogramming and the transition to a totipotent state. Targeted disruption of a subset of oocyte-derived transcripts in mice results in early embryonic lethality and cleavage stage embryonic arrest as highlighted by the members of the Subcortical Maternal Complex (SCMC). Maternal-effect recessive mutations of NLRP7, KHDC3L and NLRP5 in humans are associated with variable reproductive outcomes, biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) and widespread multi-locus imprinting disturbances. The precise mechanism of action of these genes is unknown, but the maternal effect phenomenon suggests a function during early pre-implantation development, while biochemical and genetic studies implement them as SCMC members or interacting partners. In this review article we discuss the role of the NLRP family members and the SCMC proteins in the establishment of genomic imprints and post-zygotic methylation maintenance, the recent advances made in the understanding of the biology involved in BiHM formation and the wider roles of the SCMC in mammalian reproduction.]]>
Sat, 16 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker. Zadora J, Singh M, Herse F, Przybyl L, Haase N, Golic M, Yung HW, Huppertz B, Cartwright JE, Whitley GS, Johnsen GM, Levi G, Isbruch A, Schulz H, Luft FC, Müller DN, Staff AC, Hurst LD, Dechend R, Izsvák Z
Circulation (Sep 2017)

Background -Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human-specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in PE. Our study aims at investigating whether disturbed imprinting contributes to PE. Methods -We first aimed at confirming that PE is a disease of the placenta by generating and analysing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from normal and PE patients. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in PE placenta, and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We employed bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and PE, and to predict biological processes affected in PE. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. Regarding human-specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. Results -We found disturbed placental imprinting in PE and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with PE. Due to loss of imprinting DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of PE placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classical PE marker. DLX5 is expressed in human, but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5(high) phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism and ER stress-response activation in trophoblasts in vitro The transcriptional profile of such cells mimics the transcriptome of PE placentas. Pan-mammalian comparative analysis identified DLX5 as a part of the human-specific regulatory network of trophoblast differentiation. Conclusions -Our analysis provides evidence of a true association between disturbed imprinting, gene expression and PE. Due to disturbed imprinting, the upregulated DLX5 affects trophoblast proliferation. Our in vitro model might fill a vital niche in PE research. Human-specific regulatory circuitry of DLX5 might help to explain certain aspects of PE.]]>
Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Evolving DNA methylation and gene expression markers of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia are present in pre-diagnostic blood samples more than 10 years prior to diagnosis. Georgiadis P, Liampa I, Hebels DG, Krauskopf J, Chatziioannou A, Valavanis I, de Kok TMCM, Kleinjans JCS, Bergdahl IA, Melin B, Spaeth F, Palli D, Vermeulen RCH, Vlaanderen J, Chadeau-Hyam M, Vineis P, Kyrtopoulos SA,  
BMC Genomics (Sep 2017)

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common type of adult leukemia. It often follows an indolent course and is preceded by monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, an asymptomatic condition, however it is not known what causes subjects with this condition to progress to CLL. Hence the discovery of prediagnostic markers has the potential to improve the identification of subjects likely to develop CLL and may also provide insights into the pathogenesis of the disease of potential clinical relevance.]]>
Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Tissue-specific DNA methylation is conserved across human, mouse, and rat, and driven by primary sequence conservation. Zhou J, Sears RL, Xing X, Zhang B, Li D, Rockweiler NB, Jang HS, Choudhary MNK, Lee HJ, Lowdon RF, Arand J, Tabers B, Gu CC, Cicero TJ, Wang T
BMC Genomics (Sep 2017)

Uncovering mechanisms of epigenome evolution is an essential step towards understanding the evolution of different cellular phenotypes. While studies have confirmed DNA methylation as a conserved epigenetic mechanism in mammalian development, little is known about the conservation of tissue-specific genome-wide DNA methylation patterns.]]>
Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Genotoxicity testing: progress and prospects for the next decade. Turkez H, Arslan ME, Ozdemir O
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol (Sep 2017)

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity analyses have a significant role in the identification of hazard effects of therapeutic drugs, cosmetics, agrochemicals, industrial compounds, food additives, natural toxins and nanomaterials for regulatory purposes. To evaluate mutagenicity or genotoxicity, different in vitro and in vivo methodologies exert various genotoxicological endpoints such as point mutations, changes in number and structure of chromosomes. Areas covered: This review covered the basics of genotoxicity and in vitro/in vivo methods for determining of genetic damages. The limitations that have arisen as a result of the common use of these methods were also discussed. Finally, the perspectives of further prospects on the use of genotoxicity testing and genotoxic mode of action were emphasized. Expert opinion: The solution of actual and practical problems of genetic toxicology is inarguably based on the understanding of DNA damage mechanisms at molecular, subcellular, cellular, organ, system and organism levels. Current strategies to investigate human health risks should be modified to increase their performance for more reliable results and also new techniques such as toxicogenomics, epigenomics and single cell approaches must be integrated into genetic safety evolutions. The explored new biomarkers by the omic techniques will provide forceful genotoxicity assessment to reduce the cancer risk.]]>
Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Epigenetics in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nordlund J, Syvänen AC
Semin Cancer Biol (Sep 2017)

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. ALL arises from the malignant transformation of progenitor B- and T-cells in the bone marrow into leukemic cells, but the mechanisms underlying this transformation are not well understood. Recent technical advances and decreasing costs of methods for high-throughput DNA sequencing and SNP genotyping have stimulated systematic studies of the epigenetic changes in leukemic cells from pediatric ALL patients. The results emerging from these studies are increasing our understanding of the epigenetic component of leukemogenesis and have demonstrated the potential of DNA methylation as a biomarker for lineage and subtype classification, prognostication, and disease progression in ALL. In this review, we provide a concise examination of the epigenetic studies in ALL, with a focus on DNA methylation and mutations perturbing genes involved in chromatin modification, and discuss the future role of epigenetic analyses in research and clinical management of ALL.]]>
Sat, 09 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Copy number rather than epigenetic alterations are the major dictator of imprinted methylation in tumors. Martin-Trujillo A, Vidal E, Monteagudo-Sa Nchez A, Sanchez-Delgado M, Moran S, Hernandez Mora JR, Heyn H, Guitart M, Esteller M, Monk D
Nat Commun (Sep 2017)

It has been postulated that imprinting aberrations are common in tumors. To understand the role of imprinting in cancer, we have characterized copy-number and methylation in over 280 cancer cell lines and confirm our observations in primary tumors. Imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulate parent-of-origin monoallelic expression of neighboring transcripts in cis. Unlike single-copy CpG islands that may be prone to hypermethylation, imprinted DMRs can either loose or gain methylation during tumorigenesis. Here, we show that methylation profiles at imprinted DMRs often not represent genuine epigenetic changes but simply the accumulation of underlying copy-number aberrations (CNAs), which is independent of the genome methylation state inferred from cancer susceptible loci. Our results reveal that CNAs also influence allelic expression as loci with copy-number neutral loss-of-heterozygosity or amplifications may be expressed from the appropriate parental chromosomes, which is indicative of maintained imprinting, although not observed as a single expression foci by RNA FISH.Altered genomic imprinting is frequently reported in cancer. Here, the authors analyze copy number and methylation in cancer cell lines and primary tumors to show that imprinted methylation profiles represent the accumulation of copy number alteration, rather than epigenetic alterations.]]>
Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Maternal residential air pollution and placental imprinted gene expression. Kingsley SL, Deyssenroth MA, Kelsey KT, Awad YA, Kloog I, Schwartz JD, Lambertini L, Chen J, Marsit CJ, Wellenius GA
Environ Int (Sep 2017)

Maternal exposure to air pollution is associated with reduced fetal growth, but its relationship with expression of placental imprinted genes (important regulators of fetal growth) has not yet been studied.]]>
Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Systems approach to the pharmacological actions of HDAC inhibitors reveals EP300 activities and convergent mechanisms of regulation in diabetes. Rafehi H, Kaspi A, Ziemann M, Okabe J, Karagiannis TC, El-Osta A
Epigenetics (Sep 2017)

Given the skyrocketing costs to develop new drugs, repositioning of approved drugs, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, may be a promising strategy to develop novel therapies. However, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement of these agents to meaningful translation for which new indications may emerge. To address this, we performed systems-level analyses of 33 independent HDAC inhibitor microarray studies. Based on network analysis, we identified enrichment for pathways implicated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes (insulin receptor signaling, lipid metabolism, immunity and trafficking). Integration with ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets identified suppression of EP300 target genes implicated in diabetes. Experimental validation indicates reversal of diabetes-associated EP300 target genes in primary vascular endothelial cells derived from a diabetic individual following inhibition of HDACs (by SAHA), EP300, or EP300 knockdown. Our computational systems biology approach provides an adaptable framework for the prediction of novel therapeutics for existing disease.]]>
Fri, 08 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
The Maize Imprinted Gene Floury3 Encodes a PLATZ Protein Required for tRNA and 5S rRNA Transcription Through Interaction with RNA Polymerase III. Li Q, Wang J, Ye J, Zheng X, Xiang X, Li C, Fu M, Wang Q, Zhang ZY, Wu Y
Plant Cell (Sep 2017)

Maize (Zea mays) floury3 (fl3) is a classic semi-dominant negative mutant that exhibits severe defects in the endosperm but fl3 plants otherwise appear normal. We cloned the fl3 gene and determined that it encodes a PLATZ (plant AT-rich sequence- and zinc-binding) protein. The mutation in fl3 resulted in an Asn to His replacement in the conserved PLATZ domain, creating a dominant allele. Fl3 is specifically expressed in starchy endosperm cells and regulated by genomic imprinting, which leads to the suppressed expression of fl3 when transmitted through the male, perhaps as a consequence the semi-dominant behavior. Yeast two-hybrid screening and bimolecular luciferase complementation (BiLC) experiments revealed that FL3 interacts with the RNA polymerase III subunit 53 (RPC53) and transcription factor class C 1 (TFC1), two critical factors of the RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) transcription complex. In the fl3 endosperm, the levels of many tRNAs and 5S rRNA that are transcribed by RNAPIII are significantly reduced, suggesting that the incorrectly folded fl3 protein may impair the function of RNAPIII. The transcriptome is dramatically altered in fl3 mutants, in which the down-regulated genes are primarily enriched in pathways related to translation, ribosome, misfolded protein responses and nutrient reservoir activity. Collectively, these changes may lead to defects in endosperm development and storage reserve filling in fl3 seeds.]]>
Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Assay of DNA methyltransferase 1 activity based on uracil-specific excision reagent digestion induced G-quadruplex formation. Li J, He G, Mu C, Wang K, Xiang Y
Anal Chim Acta (Sep 2017)

DNA methylation catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase plays an important role in many biological processes including gene transcription, genomic imprinting and cellular differentiation. Herein, a novel and effective electrochemical method for the assay of DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) activity has been successfully developed by using uracil-specific excision reagent (USER) induced G-quadruplex formation. Briefly, double stranded DNA containing the recognition sequence of DNMT1 is immobilized on the electrode. Among them, one strand (DNA S1) contains G-rich sequence and a cytosine base, while the supplement strand (DNA S2) cotains C-rich sequence and a methylated cytosine. Through the activity of DNMT1, the hemimethylated CG recognition sequence of the double stranded DNA are methylated and DNA S2 strand is cleaved and removed after the subsequently treatment with EpiTect fast bisulfite conversion kits and USER, leaving the DNA S1 to form the G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme for signal amplification. Under optimal-conditions, the method shows wide linear range of 0.1-40 U mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.06 U mL(-1). Furthermore, the inhibition assay study demonstrates that SGI-1027 can inhibit the DNMT 1 activity with the IC50 values of 6 μM in the presence of 160 μM S-adenosylmethionine. Since this method can detect human DNMT1 activity effectively and has successfully been applied in complex biological samples, it may have great potential in the applications in DNA methylation related clinical practices and biochemical researches.]]>
Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
ETS transcription factor family member GABPA contributes to vitamin D receptor target gene regulation. Seuter S, Neme A, Carlberg C
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol (Sep 2017)

Binding motifs of the ETS-domain transcription factor GABPA are found with high significance below the summits of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) cistrome. VDR is the nuclear receptor for the biologically most active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). In this study, we determined the GABPA cistrome in THP-1 human monocytes and found that it is comprised of 3822 genomic loci, some 20% of which were modulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. The GABPA cistrome showed a high overlap rate with accessible chromatin and the pioneer transcription factor PU.1. Interestingly, 23 and 12% of persistent and transient VDR binding sites, respectively, co-localized with GABPA, which is clearly higher than the rate of secondary VDR loci (4%). Some 40% of GABPA binding sites were found at transcription start sites, nearly 100 of which are of 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes. On 593 genomic loci VDR and GABPA co-localized with PU.1, while only 175 VDR sites bound GABPA in the absence of PU.1. In total, VDR sites with GABPA co-localization may control some 450 vitamin D target genes. Those genes that are co-controlled by PU.1 preferentially participate in cellular and immune signaling processes, while the remaining genes are involved in cellular metabolism pathways. In conclusion, GABPA may contribute to differential VDR target gene regulation.]]>
Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
The gymnastics of epigenomics in rice. Banerjee A, Roychoudhury A
Plant Cell Rep (Sep 2017)

Epigenomics is represented by the high-throughput investigations of genome-wide epigenetic alterations, which ultimately dictate genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic dynamism. Rice has been accepted as the global staple crop. As a result, this model crop deserves significant importance in the rapidly emerging field of plant epigenomics. A large number of recently available data reveal the immense flexibility and potential of variable epigenomic landscapes. Such epigenomic impacts and variability are determined by a number of epigenetic regulators and several crucial inheritable epialleles, respectively. This article highlights the correlation of the epigenomic landscape with growth, flowering, reproduction, non-coding RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, transposon mobility and even heterosis in rice. We have also discussed the drastic epigenetic alterations which are reported in rice plants grown from seeds exposed to the extraterrestrial environment. Such abiotic conditions impose stress on the plants leading to epigenomic modifications in a genotype-specific manner. Some significant bioinformatic databases and in silico approaches have also been explained in this article. These softwares provide important interfaces for comparative epigenomics. The discussion concludes with a unified goal of developing epigenome editing to promote biological hacking of the rice epigenome. Such a cutting-edge technology if properly standardized, can integrate genomics and epigenomics together with the generation of high-yielding trait in several cultivars of rice.]]>
Sun, 03 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
A statistical test for detecting parent-of-origin effects when parental information is missing. Sacco C, Viroli C, Falchi M
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol (Sep 2017)

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to differential contributions of maternal and paternal alleles to offspring gene expression in a parent-of-origin manner. We propose a novel test for detecting the parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome wide genotype data from related individuals (twins) when the parental origin cannot be inferred. The proposed method exploits a finite mixture of linear mixed models: the key idea is that in the case of POEs the population can be clustered in two different groups in which the reference allele is inherited by a different parent. A further advantage of this approach is the possibility to obtain an estimation of parental effect when the parental information is missing. We will also show that the approach is flexible enough to be applicable to the general scenario of independent data. The performance of the proposed test is evaluated through a wide simulation study. The method is finally applied to known imprinted genes of the MuTHER twin study data.]]>
Fri, 01 Sep 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Regulation of Pharmacogene Expression by microRNA in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Han N, Song YK, Burckart GJ, Ji E, Kim IW, Oh JM
Biomol Ther (Seoul) (Sep 2017)

Individual differences in drug responses are associated with genetic and epigenetic variability of pharmacogene expression. We aimed to identify the relevant miRNAs which regulate pharmacogenes associated with drug responses. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles derived from data for normal and solid tumor tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Predicted miRNAs targeted to pharmacogenes were identified using publicly available databases. A total of 95 pharmacogenes were selected from cholangiocarcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, as well as kidney renal clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and lung squamous cell carcinomas. Through the integration analyses of miRNA and mRNA, 35 miRNAs were found to negatively correlate with mRNA expression levels of 16 pharmacogenes in normal bile duct, liver, colon, and lung tissues (p<0.05). Additionally, 36 miRNAs were related to differential expression of 32 pharmacogene mRNAs in those normal and tumorigenic tissues (p<0.05). These results indicate that changes in expression levels of miRNAs targeted to pharmacogenes in normal and tumor tissues may play a role in determining individual variations in drug response.]]>
Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Human imprinting disorders: Principles, practice, problems and progress. Mackay DJG, Temple IK
Eur J Med Genet (Nov 2017)

Epigenetic regulation orchestrates gene expression with exquisite precision, over a huge dynamic range and across developmental space and time, permitting genomically-homogeneous humans to develop and adapt to their surroundings. Every generation, these epigenetic marks are re-set twice: in the germline, to enable differentiation of sperm and eggs, and at fertilisation, to create the totipotent zygote that then begins growth and differentiation into a new human. A small group of genes evades the second, zygotic wave of epigenetic reprogramming, and these genes retain an epigenetic 'imprint' of the parent from whom they were inherited. Imprinted genes are (as a general rule) expressed from one parental allele only. Some imprinted genes are critical regulators of growth and development, and thus disruption of their normal monoallelic expression causes congenital imprinting disorders, with clinical features impacting growth, development, behaviour and metabolism. Imprinting disorders as a group have characteristics that challenge diagnosis and management, including clinical and molecular heterogeneity, overlapping clinical features, somatic mosaicism, and multi-locus involvement. New insights into the biology and epigenomics of the early embryo offers new clues about the origin and importance of imprinting disorders.]]>
Fri, 18 Aug 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Mechanisms of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Loci. Gaulton KJ
Curr Diab Rep (Sep 2017)

Deciphering the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk loci can greatly inform on disease pathology. This review discusses current knowledge of mechanisms through which genetic variants influence T2DM risk and considerations for future studies.]]>
Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 PDT
The epigenomics of schizophrenia, in the mouse. Javidfar B, Park R, Kassim BS, Bicks LK, Akbarian S
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet (Sep 2017)

Large-scale consortia including the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, the Common Minds Consortium, BrainSeq and PsychENCODE, and many other studies taken together provide increasingly detailed insights into the genetic and epigenetic risk architectures of schizophrenia (SCZ) and offer vast amounts of molecular information, but with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. Here we discuss how epigenomic studies in human brain could guide animal work to test the impact of disease-associated alterations in chromatin structure and function on cognition and behavior. For example, transcription factors such as MYOCYTE-SPECIFIC ENHANCER FACTOR 2C (MEF2C), or multiple regulators of the open chromatin mark, methyl-histone H3-lysine 4, are associated with the genetic risk architectures of common psychiatric disease and alterations in chromatin structure and function in diseased brain tissue. Importantly, these molecules also affect cognition and behavior in genetically engineered mice, including virus-mediated expression changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other key nodes in the circuitry underlying psychosis. Therefore, preclinical and small laboratory animal work could target genomic sequences affected by chromatin alterations in SCZ. To this end, in vivo editing of enhancer and other regulatory non-coding DNA by RNA-guided nucleases including CRISPR-Cas, and designer transcription factors, could be expected to deliver pipelines for novel therapeutic approaches aimed at improving cognitive dysfunction and other core symptoms of SCZ.]]>
Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 PDT
Strand-specific CpG hemimethylation, a novel epigenetic modification functional for genomic imprinting. Patiño-Parrado I, Gómez-Jiménez Ã, López-Sánchez N, Frade JM
Nucleic Acids Res (Sep 2017)

Imprinted genes are regulated by allele-specific differentially DNA-methylated regions (DMRs). Epigenetic methylation of the CpGs constituting these DMRs is established in the germline, resulting in a 5-methylcytosine-specific pattern that is tightly maintained in somatic tissues. Here, we show a novel epigenetic mark, characterized by strand-specific hemimethylation of contiguous CpG sites affecting the germline DMR of the murine Peg3, but not Snrpn, imprinted domain. This modification is enriched in tetraploid cortical neurons, a cell type where evidence for a small proportion of formylmethylated CpG sites within the Peg3-controlling DMR is also provided. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based transcriptional analysis indicated that these epigenetic modifications participate in the maintainance of the monoallelic expression pattern of the Peg3 imprinted gene. Our results unexpectedly demonstrate that the methylation pattern observed in DMRs controlling defined imprinting regions can be modified in somatic cells, resulting in a novel epigenetic modification that gives rise to strand-specific hemimethylated domains functional for genomic imprinting. We anticipate the existence of a novel molecular mechanism regulating the transition from fully methylated CpGs to strand-specific hemimethylated CpGs.]]>
Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 PDT
The placental imprinted DLK1-DIO3 domain: a new link to prenatal and postnatal growth in humans. Prats-Puig A, Carreras-Badosa G, Bassols J, Cavelier P, Magret A, Sabench C, de Zegher F, Ibáñez L, Feil R, López-Bermejo A
Am J Obstet Gynecol (Sep 2017)

The developmentally important DLK1-DIO3 imprinted domain on human chromosome 14 is regulated by 2 differentially methylated regions, the intergenic differentially methylated region and the MEG3 differentially methylated region.]]>
Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 PDT