'; ?> geneimprint : Hot off the Press http://www.geneimprint.com/site/hot-off-the-press Daily listing of the most recent articles in epigenetics and imprinting, collected from the PubMed database. en-us Wed, 17 Jan 2018 18:41:43 PST Wed, 17 Jan 2018 18:41:43 PST jirtle@radonc.duke.edu james001@jirtle.com Ensembl 2018. Zerbino DR, Achuthan P, Akanni W, Amode MR, Barrell D, Bhai J, Billis K, Cummins C, Gall A, Girón CG, Gil L, Gordon L, Haggerty L, Haskell E, Hourlier T, Izuogu OG, Janacek SH, Juettemann T, To JK, Laird MR, Lavidas I, Liu Z, Loveland JE, Maurel T, McLaren W, Moore B, Mudge J, Murphy DN, Newman V, Nuhn M, Ogeh D, Ong CK, Parker A, Patricio M, Riat HS, Schuilenburg H, Sheppard D, Sparrow H, Taylor K, Thormann A, Vullo A, Walts B, Zadissa A, Frankish A, Hunt SE, Kostadima M, Langridge N, Martin FJ, Muffato M, Perry E, Ruffier M, Staines DM, Trevanion SJ, Aken BL, Cunningham F, Yates A, Flicek P
Nucleic Acids Res (Jan 2018)

The Ensembl project has been aggregating, processing, integrating and redistributing genomic datasets since the initial releases of the draft human genome, with the aim of accelerating genomics research through rapid open distribution of public data. Large amounts of raw data are thus transformed into knowledge, which is made available via a multitude of channels, in particular our browser (http://www.ensembl.org). Over time, we have expanded in multiple directions. First, our resources describe multiple fields of genomics, in particular gene annotation, comparative genomics, genetics and epigenomics. Second, we cover a growing number of genome assemblies; Ensembl Release 90 contains exactly 100. Third, our databases feed simultaneously into an array of services designed around different use cases, ranging from quick browsing to genome-wide bioinformatic analysis. We present here the latest developments of the Ensembl project, with a focus on managing an increasing number of assemblies, supporting efforts in genome interpretation and improving our browser.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
GIGGLE: a search engine for large-scale integrated genome analysis. Layer RM, Pedersen BS, DiSera T, Marth GT, Gertz J, Quinlan AR
Nat Methods (Jan 2018)

GIGGLE is a genomics search engine that identifies and ranks the significance of genomic loci shared between query features and thousands of genome interval files. GIGGLE (https://github.com/ryanlayer/giggle) scales to billions of intervals and is over three orders of magnitude faster than existing methods. Its speed extends the accessibility and utility of resources such as ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics, and GTEx by facilitating data integration and hypothesis generation.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Biological function and histone recognition of family IV bromodomain-containing proteins. Lloyd JT, Glass KC
J Cell Physiol (Mar 2018)

Bromodomain proteins function as epigenetic readers that recognize acetylated histone tails to facilitate the transcription of target genes. There are approximately 60 known human bromodomains, which are divided into eight sub-families based on structural conservation. The bromodomain-containing proteins in family IV include seven members (BRPF1, BRPF2, BRPF3, BRD7, BRD9, ATAD2, and ATAD2b). The bromodomains of each of these proteins recognize and bind acetyllysine residues on histone tails protruding from the nucleosome. However, the histone marks recognized by each bromodomain protein can be very different. The BRPF1 subunit of the MOZ histone acetyltransferase (HAT) recognizes acetylated histones H2AK5ac, H4K12ac, H3K14ac, H4K8ac, and H4K5ac. While the bromodomain of BRD7, a member of the SWI/SNF complex, was shown to preferentially recognize acetylated histones H3K9ac, H3K14ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, and H4K16ac. The bromodomains of BRPF2 and BRPF3 have similar sequences, and function as part of the HBO1 HAT complex, but there is limited data on which histone ligands they bind. Similarly, there is little known about the histone targets of the BRD9 and ATAD2b bromodomain proteins. Interestingly, the ATAD2 bromodomain was recently shown to preferentially bind to the di-acetylated H4K5acK12ac mark found in newly synthesized histones following DNA replication. However, despite the physiological importance of the family IV bromodomains, little is known about how they function at the molecular or atomic level. In this review, we summarize our understanding of how family IV bromodomains recognize and select for acetyllysine marks and discuss the importance of acetylated histone recognition for their biological functions.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Primer in Genetics and Genomics, Article 6: Basics of Epigenetic Control. Fessele KL, Wright F
Biol Res Nurs (Jan 2018)

The epigenome is a collection of chemical compounds that attach to and overlay the DNA sequence to direct gene expression. Epigenetic marks do not alter DNA sequence but instead allow or silence gene activity and the subsequent production of proteins that guide the growth and development of an organism, direct and maintain cell identity, and allow for the production of primordial germ cells (PGCs; ova and spermatozoa). The three main epigenetic marks are (1) histone modification, (2) DNA methylation, and (3) noncoding RNA, and each works in a different way to regulate gene expression. This article reviews these concepts and discusses their role in normal functions such as X-chromosome inactivation, epigenetic reprogramming during embryonic development and PGC production, and the clinical example of the imprinting disorders Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity NIH rare disease consortium: A review of natural history study. Butler MG, Kimonis V, Dykens E, Gold JA, Miller J, Tamura R, Driscoll DJ
Am J Med Genet A (Feb 2018)

We describe the National Institutes of Health rare disease consortium for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) developed to address concerns regarding medical care, diagnosis, growth and development, awareness, and natural history. PWS results from errors in genomic imprinting leading to loss of paternally expressed genes due to 15q11-q13 deletion, maternal disomy 15 or imprinting defects. The 8 year study was conducted at four national sites on individuals with genetically confirmed PWS and early-onset morbid obesity (EMO) with data accumulated to gain a better understanding of the natural history, cause and treatment of PWS. Enrollment of 355 subjects with PWS and 36 subjects with EMO began in September 2006 with study completion in July 2014. Clinical, genetic, cognitive, behavior, and natural history data were systematically collected along with PWS genetic subtypes, pregnancy and birth history, mortality, obesity, and cognitive status with study details as important endpoints in both subject groups. Of the 355 individuals with PWS, 217 (61%) had the 15q11-q13 deletion, 127 (36%) had maternal disomy 15, and 11 (3%) had imprinting defects. Six deaths were reported in our PWS cohort with 598 cumulative years of study exposure and one death in the EMO group with 42 years of exposure. To our knowledge, this description of a longitudinal study in PWS represents the largest and most comprehensive cohort useful for investigators in planning comparable studies in other rare disorders. Ongoing studies utilizing this database should have a direct impact on care and services, diagnosis, treatment, genotype-phenotype correlations, and clinical outcomes in PWS.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Stable Oxidative Cytosine Modifications Accumulate in Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells From Type2 Diabetes Patients: Rescue by α-Ketoglutarate and TET-TDG Functional Reactivation. Spallotta F, Cencioni C, Atlante S, Garella D, Cocco M, Mori M, Mastrocola R, Kuenne C, Guenther S, Nanni S, Azzimato V, Zukunft S, Kornberger A, Sürün D, Schnütgen F, von Melchner H, Di Stilo A, Aragno M, Braspenning M, van Criekinge W, De Blasio MJ, Ritchie RH, Zaccagnini G, Martelli F, Farsetti A, Fleming I, Braun T, Beiras-Fernandez A, Botta B, Collino M, Bertinaria M, Zeiher AM, Gaetano C
Circ Res (Jan 2018)

Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically relevant primary cell population. Diabetes mellitus compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Natural Agents-Mediated Targeting of Histone Deacetylases. Farooqi AA, Naqvi SK, Perk AA, Yanar O, Tabassum S, Ahmad MS, Mansoor Q, Ashry MS, Ismail M, Naoum GE, Arafat WO
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) (Feb 2018)

In the past few years, basic and clinical scientists have witnessed landmark achievements in many research projects, such as those conducted by the US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, the International Human Epigenome Consortium, The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have provided near-complete resolution of epigenetic landscape in different diseases. Furthermore, genome sequencing of tumors has provided compelling evidence related to frequent existence of mutations in readers, erasers and writers of epigenome in different cancers. Histone acetylation is an intricate mechanism modulated by two opposing sets of enzymes and deeply studied as a key biological phenomenon in 1964 by Vincent Allfrey and colleagues. The research group suggested that this protein modification contributed substantially in transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetyltransferases and acetyl-Lys-binding proteins were identified as transcriptional mediators, which further deepened our comprehension regarding biochemical modifications. Overwhelmingly increasing high-impact research is improving our understanding of this molecularly controlled mechanism; moreover, quantification and identification of lysine acetylation by mass spectrometry has added new layers of information. We partition this multi-component review into how both activity and expression of HDAC are targeted using natural agents. We also set spotlight on how oncogenic fusion proteins tactfully utilize HDAC-associated nano-machinery to modulate expression of different genes and how HDAC inhibitors regulate TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. HDAC inhibitors have been reported to upregulate expression of TRAIL receptors and protect TRAIL from proteasomal degradation. Deeper understanding of HDAC biology will be useful for stratification and selection of patients who are responders, non-responders and poor-responders for HDACi therapy, and for the rational design of combination studies using HDACi.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Intracranial Aneurysm-Associated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Alter Regulatory DNA in the Human Circle of Willis. Laarman MD, Vermunt MW, Kleinloog R, de Boer-Bergsma JJ, Brain Bank N, Rinkel GJE, Creyghton MP, Mokry M, Bakkers J, Ruigrok YM
Stroke (Jan 2018)

Genome-wide association studies significantly link intracranial aneurysm (IA) to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 genomic loci. To gain insight into the relevance of these IA-associated SNPs, we aimed to identify regulatory regions and analyze overall gene expression in the human circle of Willis (CoW), on which these aneurysms develop.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida. Geuverink E, Verhulst EC, van Leussen M, van de Zande L, Beukeboom LW
Insect Mol Biol (Feb 2018)

In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer. Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP, Kellermayer R, Koturbash I, Kondo Y, Lepeule J, Lima SCS, Marsit CJ, Rakyan V, Saffery R, Taylor JA, Teschendorff AE, Ushijima T, Vineis P, Walker CL, Waterland RA, Wiemels J, Ambatipudi S, Degli Esposti D, Hernandez-Vargas H
Int J Cancer (Mar 2018)

The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene-environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific ("fingerprints") that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer. Here, we review the state of the science of epigenetics associated with environmental stimuli and cancer risk, highlighting key developments in the field. Critical knowledge gaps and research needs are discussed and advances in epigenomics that may help in understanding the functional relevance of epigenetic alterations. Key elements required for causality inferences linking epigenetic changes to exposure and cancer are discussed and how these alterations can be incorporated in carcinogen evaluation and in understanding mechanisms underlying epigenome deregulation by the environment.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Variant calling from RNA-seq data of the brain transcriptome of pigs and its application for allele-specific expression and imprinting analysis. Oczkowicz M, Szmatoła T, Piórkowska K, Ropka-Molik K
Gene (Jan 2018)

Identification of new polymorphic variants from RNA-seq data is difficult mainly because of the errors arising during bioinformatic analysis. Therefore, new experiments in this area are very profitable for improving new statistical methods. In our study of the porcine brain transcriptome, we have identified 10966 polymorphic variants, among which 7277 were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Further, we have calculated allelic ratios for the SNPs identified and estimated that 52% of genes in porcine brain are subjected to allele-specific expression (ASE), a phenomenon in which one allele is preferentially expressed. Our investigation presents the first estimates of ASE in porcine brain. In addition, we have used the results of RNA-seq for the identification of SNPs in putatively imprinted genes. Finally, we have used these SNPs for the verification of the imprinted status of the INPP5f variant 2, LRRTM1 and HM13 genes in pigs by Sanger sequencing. We observed that INPP5f variant 2 is paternally expressed, while HM13 and LRRTM1 are biallelically expressed in porcine brain. We have also confirmed maternal expression of the MEG3 gene in pigs. Our results present how RNA-seq data may be used for imprinting studies without sequencing of parental genomes.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
A powerful parent-of-origin effects test for qualitative traits on X chromosome in general pedigrees. Zou QL, You XP, Li JL, Fung WK, Zhou JY
BMC Bioinformatics (Jan 2018)

Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed. However, these methods on X chromosome are only applicable to nuclear families and thus are not suitable for general pedigrees.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Epigenetic regulation of miR-200 as the potential strategy for the therapy against triple-negative breast cancer. Mekala JR, Naushad SM, Ponnusamy L, Arivazhagan G, Sakthiprasad V, Pal-Bhadra M
Gene (Jan 2018)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Epigenetic modifiers regulate the microRNA expression. Among the epigenetic players, histone deacetylases (HDACs) function as the key regulators of microRNA expression. Epigenetic machineries such as DNA and histone modifying enzymes and various microRNAs have been identified as the important contributors in cancer initiation and progression. Recent studies have shown that developing innovative microRNA-targeting therapies might improve the human health, specifically against the disease areas of high unmet medical need. Thus microRNA based therapeutics are gaining importance for anti-cancer therapy. Studies on Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have revealed the early relapse and poor overall survival of patients which needs immediate therapeutic attention. In this report, we focus the effect of HDAC inhibitors on TNBC cell proliferation, regulation of microRNA gene expression by a series of HDAC genes, chromatin epigenetics, epigenetic remodelling at miR-200 promoter and its modulation by various HDACs. We also discuss the need for identifying novel HDAC inhibitors for modulation of miR-200 in triple negative breast cancer.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Derivation of Human Trophoblast Stem Cells. Okae H, Toh H, Sato T, Hiura H, Takahashi S, Shirane K, Kabayama Y, Suyama M, Sasaki H, Arima T
Cell Stem Cell (Jan 2018)

Trophoblast cells play an essential role in the interactions between the fetus and mother. Mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells have been derived and used as the best in vitro model for molecular and functional analysis of mouse trophoblast lineages, but attempts to derive human TS cells have so far been unsuccessful. Here we show that activation of Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and EGF and inhibition of TGF-β, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) enable long-term culture of human villous cytotrophoblast (CT) cells. The resulting cell lines have the capacity to give rise to the three major trophoblast lineages, which show transcriptomes similar to those of the corresponding primary trophoblast cells. Importantly, equivalent cell lines can be derived from human blastocysts. Our data strongly suggest that the CT- and blastocyst-derived cell lines are human TS cells, which will provide a powerful tool to study human trophoblast development and function.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Rules governing the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming memory. Luu PL, Gerovska D, Schöler HR, Araúzo-Bravo MJ
Epigenomics (Jan 2018)

Disclosing the mechanisms that regulate reprogramming memory.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
ANISEED 2017: extending the integrated ascidian database to the exploration and evolutionary comparison of genome-scale datasets. Brozovic M, Dantec C, Dardaillon J, Dauga D, Faure E, Gineste M, Louis A, Naville M, Nitta KR, Piette J, Reeves W, Scornavacca C, Simion P, Vincentelli R, Bellec M, Aicha SB, Fagotto M, Guéroult-Bellone M, Haeussler M, Jacox E, Lowe EK, Mendez M, Roberge A, Stolfi A, Yokomori R, Brown CT, Cambillau C, Christiaen L, Delsuc F, Douzery E, Dumollard R, Kusakabe T, Nakai K, Nishida H, Satou Y, Swalla B, Veeman M, Volff JN, Lemaire P
Nucleic Acids Res (Jan 2018)

ANISEED (www.aniseed.cnrs.fr) is the main model organism database for tunicates, the sister-group of vertebrates. This release gives access to annotated genomes, gene expression patterns, and anatomical descriptions for nine ascidian species. It provides increased integration with external molecular and taxonomy databases, better support for epigenomics datasets, in particular RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and SELEX-seq, and features novel interactive interfaces for existing and novel datatypes. In particular, the cross-species navigation and comparison is enhanced through a novel taxonomy section describing each represented species and through the implementation of interactive phylogenetic gene trees for 60% of tunicate genes. The gene expression section displays the results of RNA-seq experiments for the three major model species of solitary ascidians. Gene expression is controlled by the binding of transcription factors to cis-regulatory sequences. A high-resolution description of the DNA-binding specificity for 131 Ciona robusta (formerly C. intestinalis type A) transcription factors by SELEX-seq is provided and used to map candidate binding sites across the Ciona robusta and Phallusia mammillata genomes. Finally, use of a WashU Epigenome browser enhances genome navigation, while a Genomicus server was set up to explore microsynteny relationships within tunicates and with vertebrates, Amphioxus, echinoderms and hemichordates.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
NGS-based methylation profiling differentiates TCF3-HLF and TCF3-PBX1 positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Kachroo P, Szymczak S, Heinsen FA, Forster M, Bethune J, Hemmrich-Stanisak G, Baker L, Schrappe M, Stanulla M, Franke A
Epigenomics (Jan 2018)

To determine whether methylation differences between mostly fatal TCF3-HLF and curable TCF3-PBX1 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes can be associated with differential gene expression and remission.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Genomic Imprinting was Evolutionarily Conserved during Wheat Polyploidization. Yang G, Liu Z, Gao L, Yu K, Feng M, Yao Y, Peng H, Hu Z, Sun Q, Ni Z, Xin M
Plant Cell (Jan 2018)

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent-of-origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid (Aegilops spp.), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat (Triticum spp.) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52.7% of which exhibited dynamic expression patterns at different developmental stages. Gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested that MEGs and PEGs were involved in metabolic processes and DNA-dependent transcription, respectively. Nearly half of the imprinted genes exhibited conserved expression patterns during wheat hexaploidization. In addition, forty percent of the homeolog pairs originating from whole genome duplication were consistently maternally or paternally biased in the different subgenomes of hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, imprinted expression was found for 41.2% and 50.0% of homolog pairs that evolved by tandem duplication after genome duplication in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. These results suggest that genomic imprinting was evolutionarily conserved between closely related Triticum and Aegilops species, and in the face of polyploid hybridization between species in these genera.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Enrichment analysis with EpiAnnotator. Pageaud Y, Plass C, Assenov Y
Bioinformatics (Jan 2018)

Deciphering relevant biological insights from epigenomic data can be a challenging task. One commonly used approach is to perform enrichment analysis. However, finding, downloading and using the publicly available functional annotations requires time, programming skills and IT infrastructure. Here we describe the online tool EpiAnnotator for performing enrichment analyses on epigenomic data in a fast and user-friendly way.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST
Decoding colorectal cancer epigenomics. El Bairi K, Tariq K, Himri I, Jaafari A, Smaili W, Kandhro AH, Gouri A, Ghazi B
Cancer Genet (Jan 2018)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is very heterogeneous and presents different types of epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. These changes are considered as characteristics of various observed clinical phenotypes. Undoubtedly, the discovery of epigenetic pathways with novel epigenetic-related mechanisms constitutes a promising advance in cancer biomarker discovery. In this review, we provide an evidence-based discussing of the current understanding of CRC epigenomics and its role in initiation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. We also discuss the recent findings regarding the potential clinical perspectives of these alterations as potent biomarkers for CRC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in the era of liquid biopsy.]]>
Wed, 31 Dec 1969 16:00:00 PST